Serotonin - Gut Health, Microbiome/Serotonin & Immune Part 3

brain-544412_1280.jpg

 

By Sally Pattison BAppSc, Adv. Dip. Nat, Adv. Dip. Nut

There is increasing evidence that the microbiome has an effect on the central nervous system and brain, affecting how we think, feel and act and on the development on neurological conditions.

Serotonin: The Brain-Gut Connection

Over 95% of the body’s serotonin, the 'happy hormone' is found in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract, which has been called the body’s “second brain” because of its role in serotonin production and so many of the body’s vital functions.

Serotonin is a key player in the functioning of GI tract muscles, causing the contraction of our intestines, and triggering the gut nerves which signal pain, nausea, and other gut problems. As well, it influences the functioning of the cardiovascular, immune and renal systems. This amazing hormone also regulates aggression, appetite, cognition, mood, sexual behaviour and even sleep.

This neurotransmitter (chemical by which nerve cells communicate with each other or with muscles), serotonin is manufactured in our bodies from the amino acid tryptophan, which is derived from the food we eat. Diet, then, influences not only the state of our digestive system and overall physical health, it also has a profound impact on memory, mental clarity, mood, and even the foods we crave; these functions are all regulated by serotonin.

Scientists have shown that brain levels of serotonin are regulated by the amount of bacteria in the gut during early life. The research shows that normal adult brain function depends on the presence of gut microbes during development. Serotonin is altered in times of stress, anxiety and depression and most clinically effective antidepressant drugs work by targeting this neurochemical.

You may not be aware that you actually have two nervous systems:

  • Central nervous system, composed of your brain and spinal cord
  • Enteric nervous system, which is the intrinsic nervous system of your gastrointestinal tract

Both are created from identical tissue during foetal development—one part turns into your central nervous system while the other develops into your enteric nervous system. These two systems are connected via the vagus nerve, the tenth cranial nerve that runs from your brain stem down to your abdomen. It is now well established that the vagus nerve is the primary route your gut bacteria use to transmit information to your brain.

While many think of their brain as the organ in charge, your gut actually sends far more information to your brain than your brain sends to your gut... In other words, you've probably experienced the visceral sensation of ‘butterflies in your stomach’ when you're nervous, or had an upset stomach when you were very angry or stressed. The flip side is also true, in that problems in your gut can directly impact your mental health, leading to issues like anxiety and depression – it is a 2 way street.

Just as you have neurons in your brain, you also have neurons in your gut -- including neurons that produce neurotransmitters like serotonin. It’s quite possible that this might be one reason why antidepressants, which raise serotonin levels in your brain, are often ineffective in treating depression, whereas proper dietary changes often help.

Use gut bacteria to protect yourself against anxiety, depression, obesity and
a host of other mental health issues.

Diet Is Vital to Serotonin Production

So it is now shown that the microbiome has an effect not only on the metabolism but also affects brain function.

Nutrition is vital not only to our physical health; it’s necessary to a properly functioning digestive system capable of producing sufficient amounts of serotonin. A diet of “real food”– one rich in organic fruits and vegetables and free of trans fats, refined wheat and sugar – goes a long way toward preventing the build-up of toxins in the colon. And when it comes to serotonin production, the importance of raw foods for their nutrient value and serotonin-boosting properties cannot be over stated.

Tips for Ensuring Adequate Serotonin Levels

Eat foods rich in calcium, magnesium, and vitamin B to help with serotonin production.

Omega-3, omega-6, and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) are required for serotonin production. GLA is found in black currant seed, borage, evening primrose and hemp seed oils.

Healthy carbohydrates and proteins help metabolize foods high in the agents responsible for serotonin production.

Avoid white flour and sugar carbohydrates. The boost they provide in serotonin levels is temporary and quickly followed by a crash.

Foods in which completely formed serotonin can be found include bananas, kiwis, pineapples, plantains, plums, tomatoes and walnuts.

Foods rich in tryptophan include almonds, bananas, beans, cheeses (particularly Cheddar and Swiss), chicken, eggs, fish (especially high-oil fish such as herring, mackerel, salmon, sardines, and tuna), milk, peanuts, soy foods, turkey and yoghurt.

Digestive enzymes and probiotic supplements can assist with full nutrient absorption from the above food sources, thereby increasing overall nutrient intake.

So if a twinge in your gut spikes your anxiety, you may want to consider getting your gut bacteria in balance with eating right, or taking the right probiotics.

Immunity - Gut Health, Microbiome/Serotonin & Immune Part 2

woman-254133_12801.jpg

By Sally Pattison BAppSc, Adv. Dip. Nat, Adv. Dip. Nut

Did you know that approximately 80% of your immune tissue is located within your digestive system?

The digestive system comprises of cells, proteins, tissues and organs which work together in a complex way to defend the body against harmful bacteria, infectious diseases and toxins. Our bodies rely on proper enzymes and healthy microbes to work with pathogenic bacteria and to produce anti-bacterial cultures in order to strengthen the intestinal walls and to support our immune system.

All of the systems within your body work closely together to maintain optimal health, when one system is unbalanced it can trigger a domino effect; causing problems in other areas of your body and creating a cascade of chronic health complications.

Over time, disease-causing microbes accumulate. They affect our metabolic processes and even our gene activity, causing an abnormal immune response against the body’s normal tissues and substances.

Considering the fact that an estimated 80% of your immune system is located in your gut, ‘reseeding’ your gut with healthy bacteria is important for the prevention of virtually ALL diseases, from colds to cancer.

Immune system function:

The gut is often the first entry point for exposure to pathogens (bad bacteria and virus’ that can cause disease); therefore your gut immune system needs to be thriving and healthy in order to avoid illness.

In fact, the gut mucosa connects with the largest population of immune cells in the body. These are also known as gastrointestinal immune cells; which come from the lymphoid branch of the immune system. Their aim is to secrete lymphocyte cells which attack harmful invaders. These cells work together to protect the mucous membranes of the small intestines from infection. They do this by releasing specific white blood cells to defend the inside of the digestive tract from infection, as well as the damage that they cause to the intestinal walls.

Aside from containing specialized immune cells, the particular strains of friendly gut flora that reside within your intestines are also critical for overall immunity. These guys act as mighty warriors for the immune system, and are dependable allies for immune cells; helping them to enhance their “natural killer” effectiveness and boosting their overall defence of the intestinal walls to prevent pathogens and infections being absorbed. This is one critical reason why maintaining a healthy balance of good bacteria in the gut is so important. Without them, your immune system cannot do its job effectively, and in essence it is defenceless.

A variety of illnesses can occur when these protective functions of the gut are compromised. Intestinal permeability causes the immune system to go into overdrive; bringing on an unnecessary response against things like gluten, bad bacteria and undigested foods which have passed through these permeable holes in the gut lining. One of the first indications of leaky gut is the increase in food intolerances. If left unhealed, this can lead to immune abnormalities and eventually autoimmune conditions and other health issues. Some of these include inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, eczema, psoriasis, depression, migraine headaches, muscle pain and fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, type 1 diabetes, thyroiditis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, Crohn’s disease and Addison’s disease to name a few.

It’s only in recent years that scientists are beginning to discover the vital importance of the link between diet, gut bacteria and the immune system. Scientific evidence now shows that the types of food that you eat will directly determine the levels of certain bacteria in your gut.

Changing your diet will change the kind of bacteria that you have; which will either support the strengthening of your immune system, or deplete its defensive capabilities. Conclusions drawn from the current research all reveal that a healthy immune system is the result of a diet that supports healthy gut function: one that emphasises whole, unprocessed foods and one that helps to repopulate the gut with good bacteria.

Gut Health, Microbiome/Serotonin & Immune - Part 1

girl-839613_1280.jpg

By Sally Pattison BAppSc, Adv. Dip. Nat, Adv. Dip. Nut

We’ve all heard the expression, “You are what you eat.” Never was there a truer statement. Everything we do in life depends upon our digestive system’s ability to derive nutrition from what we put in our mouths.

But how does the digestive system work? What is the brain-gut connection all about, and how does it affect mood, immune, and just about everything else? And what are the necessary ingredients for a healthy digestive system?

The answer lies in our gut!

In a series of articles I plan to unravel these questions in a way to help you understand and then how to reach optimal gut health.

Article 1 – Introduction / overview and Microbiome explained

Article 2 – Immunity- how gut health effects it

Article 3 – Serotonin – what it is?, what is it’s role?, where is it made?, where is it stored?

Article 4 – What is good/bad for gut health – and how stress affects gut health

The Microbiome

Hippocrates – “All disease begins in the Gut”

Hippocrates made this statement over two thousand years ago and it is becoming more and more relevant and more understood about the ‘why’ in today’s research. The interconnection of gut health, the bacteria within it and inflammation are being shown as underlying most diseases. The bodily process of digestion and absorption is one of the most important to our health.

The microbiome is in the spotlight with scientists becoming very interested in our gut bacteria. Where there is scientific interest, there is research. At present a lot of the knowledge base is yet to be fully understood, with its complex relationship to health and disease. It is becoming more increasingly clear that these tiny organisms play a MAJOR role in your health—both physical and mental.

There are more than ten times the bacteria in your gut than human cells.
That is a 10:1 ratio of bacteria to cells!

Yes, we have more bacteria in our body than we do human cells, up to ten times more. Most of them are in our intestines; we each have literally trillions of bacteria and fungi living in there.

Microbiome - also referred to as intestinal flora, gut flora, microflora, bacteria and probiotics and plays a vital role in the fermentation and digestion of carbohydrates and aids in the digestion of fats and proteins.

Bacteria populations that live in the gut are a combination of both good and bad bacteria; a balance between the two is necessary for an optimal state of health. They help with digestion, detoxification, metabolism and ensuring balanced immunological responses to potential allergens.

Bad bacteria include those that cause disease such as Salmonella, Clostridium and others. They only become problematic, however, when their numbers grow large and uncontrollable in proportion to that of good bacteria. Even yeasts such as Candida are healthy in small amounts.

Good bacteria include Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgarius, Bifidobacterium bifidum and others. They help us digest food, maintain a healthy gut, provide us with nutrients and vitamins, and fight off bad bacteria.

Good gut flora helps prevent bloating, gas and yeast overgrowth because they maintain intestinal acidity at a healthy pH level. They manufacture certain vitamins, help prevent disease by depriving unwanted bacteria of nutrients and secrete acids that bad bacteria have difficulty coping with.

An imbalance in your microbiome can contribute to chronic illnesses of the gastrointestinal system such as IBS and Crohn’s disease, autoimmune conditions and rheumatoid arthritis. It may influence your susceptibility to infectious disease, and certain collections of microbes may determine how you respond to prescription medication.

Autoimmune diseases are now believed to be passed on in families not by DNA inheritance but by inheriting the family’s microbiome.

Genetic studies have linked various combinations of different species in the microbiome to certain health conditions. The evidence so far suggests that a balanced and diverse microbiome contributes to good health and a less diverse and less balanced microbiome to poor health.

What Gut Bacteria Do 

Your gut is the only organ that has its own nervous system (with over 100 million neurons residing within the walls of the organ).

As a newborn you have a sterile gut. By age 2 to 4 you have 100 trillion bacteria in your gut. Everyone has a unique mix of different bacterial populations. This mix is influenced by how you were born, where you live, what you eat, your genetics, your experiences as an infant and other environmental factors.

Gut bacteria play an essential role in the manufacture of neurotransmitters - such as 95% of the brain’s serotonin. (Serotonin is an important messenger that helps regulate moods – the ‘feel good’ hormone). * see article 3

Gut bacteria help with the digestion and metabolism of food. They extract vitamins and maintain the gut wall - and once beneficial bacteria colonize the gut, they repel pathogens that would otherwise establish a foothold. They do this by optimizing pH and out-competing ‘invaders’ for nutrients.

Gut bacteria communicate with dendritic cells of the immune system to quicken the response to harmful germs.* (see article 2)

What are the signs of unhealthy digestion?

  • Acid reflux
  • Throat and nose issues (constant runny nose, sinusitis etc.)
  • Gas/bloating
  • Inflammation anywhere in the body – including IBS, IBD, Crohns
  • Skin disorders anywhere on the body
  • Negative reactions to food
  • Loose stools or constipation
  • Candida
  • Reflux (GERD)
  • Indigestion
  • Inflammatory
  • Obesity
  • Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome (SIBO)
  • AND
  • Mental health from enzymes deficiencies