A common view of depression and anxiety is that they are purely biological, caused by a chemical imbalance. However, psychological trauma can play a key role in their development. Often, we must help patients heal trauma, so they can heal from depression. One intervention proving to be very effective in these situations is Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR).Read More
Lyme disease, or Lyme Borreliosis, is caused by a species of bacteria called Borrelia. It is transmitted to humans by ticks. Some ticks carry Borrelia, and when they attach and suck blood, they can regurgitate the bacteria into their host. The most common strain is Borrelia burgdorferi. This is the cause of most cases of Lyme disease in America. In Europe, the main strains are B. garinii and B. afzelii.
What are the symptoms of Lyme disease?
Borrelia bacteria are slow growing. Symptoms may take days or months to appear. In some cases, the disease may lie dormant for years, and surface after a stressful event such as illness, surgery, or physical or emotional trauma. One of the earliest and most defining signs of Lyme disease is a rash that spreads out from the site of the tick bite. The rash resembles a bulls-eye. At this early stage you may feel like you have the flu- fatigue, fever, headaches, muscle and joint aches and pains, and swollen lymph nodes are common.
The later stages of Lyme disease can take months or years to develop, and can cause problems in the joints, heart, and nervous system, and may affect mood and cognition.
Lyme disease in Australia, why the controversy?
The question of whether Australian ticks carry the bacteria that causes Lyme disease is controversial. The Australian government denies that Australian ticks carry the Borrelia bacteria, and suggests that people with Lyme disease must have contracted it while overseas. However, switched-on health practitioners are finding that not all patients with Lyme disease have been outside of Australia.
So why is there so much disagreement on Lyme disease in Australia? In 1994 a study by Russell and Doggett set out to answer the question of whether Australian ticks carry Borrelia bacteria. They collected 12 000 common Australian ticks and did not isolate any Borrelia DNA, concluding that Australian ticks do not carry the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. However, there were a number of issues in this study. Of the 12 000 ticks, only 1038 were actually tested for Borrelia. Russell and Doggett also worked on the assumption that only the burgdorferi strain of Borrelia causes Lyme disease, yet European studies have found that B.garinii and B.afzelii can also cause Borreliosis.
In 1959 Mackerras isolated Borrelia from Australian kangaroos, wallabies and bandicoots. Russell and Doggett did not mention this study in their own work. In 1962 Carley and Pope discovered an Australian strain of Borrelia, called Borrelia Queenslandica. Again, Russell and Doggett made no mention of this in their study. In 1995 Barry, Wills and Hudson isolated and grew Borrelia bacteria from Australian ticks. They also tested people with symptoms of Lyme disease, and 20% were positive for B.garinii, B.afzelii or B.burgdorferi.
Given that three out of four studies isolated Borrelia species from Australian fauna, a review of the government position on Lyme disease in Australia would be wise. We need more research to fully understand Lyme disease in Australia, and more public awareness of Lyme disease, to ensure people receive the correct diagnosis and best treatment.
Why is Lyme disease so difficult to diagnose?
Aside from the clear roadblocks that the controversy of Lyme disease in Australia causes for diagnosis, a number of other issues make diagnosis difficult. Firstly, less than 30% of patients with Lyme disease can recall getting a tick bite. Secondly, the bulls-eye rash that is a defining feature of Lyme disease occurs in less than 30% of cases.
And the list of reasons goes on: Borrelia can live inside cells and inside the central nervous system, and so may not come up in blood tests, especially in chronic cases. The tests currently used are very poor at detecting Borrelia, and results may come back falsely negative. None of the tests, either in Australia or overseas, test for strains of Borrelia specific to Australia, like Borrelia Queenslandica.
Because Lyme is difficult to diagnose, and awareness of Lyme disease in Australia is poor, patients are being misdiagnosed. People with Lyme disease have been misdiagnosed with fibromyalgia, motor neurone disease, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and chronic fatigue syndrome.
The complexities of Lyme disease
Lyme disease is not your average bacterial infection. Ticks often carry other organisms, including Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella. These can be transmitted to humans at the same time as the Borrelia bacteria, causing co-infection. It is incredibly important to test and treat these co-infections as well. Animal and human studies show that these co-infections can cause more severe and treatment-resistant Lyme disease.
Borrelia is also capable of creating a biofilm. A biofilm is a slippery, glue-like coating that some bacteria create to act as a protective shield. The plaque on your teeth is a type of biofilm produced by Treponema denticola, which causes gum disease. To create the biofilm, the bacteria clump together and build a complex matrix around themselves. They can do this on a range of surfaces including our soft tissues. Other organisms, including the co-infections common in Lyme disease, can live inside the biofilm. The biofilm protects the bacteria from attacks from the immune system and antibiotics. The Borrelia biofilm is one of the reasons Lyme disease and its co-infections are so difficult to treat.
Diagnostic considerations for Lyme disease
At The Health Lodge, we understand that the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease is complex. Therefore, we suggest a comprehensive diagnostic work-up to gather information relating to your health, including:
- Screening for Borrelia
- Screening for co-infections
- Testing for nutrient deficiencies. Practitioners have found vitamin B12 and magnesium deficiency are common in patients with Lyme disease
- We may test levels of stress and thyroid hormones. Thyroid and adrenal function is often impaired in Lyme disease
- Screening for markers of inflammation, as chronic inflammation is an issue in Lyme disease
- Assessing the health of your detoxification organs. Lyme disease and its co-infections can release toxins that attack the body, especially the nervous system. It is very important that the liver, kidneys, and digestive system are working well to get rid of these toxins. Unfortunately, in many patients with Lyme disease, these detoxification organs are under-functioning.
- Heavy metal screening. Heavy metals can be incorporated into the bacterial biofilm, and affect the body’s ability to detoxify.
Treatment considerations for Lyme disease
Treatment of Lyme disease can be a long and difficult journey. Many people with Lyme disease do not get the treatment they need due to misdiagnosis. Lyme disease is incredibly complex, and best treated by a team of health practitioners. At The Health Lodge, our treatment plan for patients with Lyme disease may include:
- Supporting detoxification
- Breaking down the biofilm
- Treating Borrelia and co-infections
- Decreasing inflammation
- Supporting affected organs and systems
- Heavy metal chelation
- Correcting nutrient imbalances
- Psychological support
Your integrative team of health care specialists
We believe that a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals is essential in managing all the aspects of Lyme disease. The multidisciplinary team may include general practitioners, psychologists, dietitians or nutritionists, naturopaths, osteopaths, and acupuncturists. This comprehensive and holistic approach is designed to support the patient’s physical, mental, and emotional well being.
For enquiries call The Health Lodge on 02 6685 6445
What is motor neurone disease?
The muscles that allow us to speak, breath, swallow, and move around are all controlled by nerve cells called neurones. In motor neurone disease (MND) these neurones stop working normally. Muscles need to be used to stay strong and function properly, and without neurons to activate them, muscles gradually weaken and waste. The muscle weakness can start anywhere in the body, and progression of MND varies from person to person. Often, MND begins with weakness of the muscles in the hands or feet, and eventually leads to generalised paralysis. Loss of muscle function can be incredibly debilitating, and people with motor neurone disease often need support and help with daily activities. Depending on the severity of their condition, a person may need a part-time or full-time carer. While some people can live a long time with MND, the average life expectancy is 2 to 3 years from diagnosis.
What are the causes of motor neurone disease?
Around 5-7% of cases of MND are hereditary, caused by inheritance of genetic mutations. Of hereditary cases, about 40% are caused by C9ORF72 gene mutation, and about 20% are caused by mutations of the superoxide dismutase-1 gene.
In the other 93-95% of cases the cause of MND remain unknown. Factors that are suspected of playing a role in MND include abnormal growth, repair and ageing of motor neurons, imbalances of the brain chemical glutamate, viral infections, environmental toxins, inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune dysfunction.
Symptoms of motor neurone disease
Early symptoms of MND include weakness of the muscles of the hands and legs. A person may notice that they cannot grasp objects in a firm grip, or are more clumsy than usual. The tongue and throat muscles may weaken, and a person may notice that their speech is slurred and they have difficulty chewing and swallowing. Other symptoms include fatigue, weight loss, muscle twitching, cramps, muscle pain, and emotional lability. The sense of smell, sight, hearing, taste, and touch are not usually affected by MDN. Nor are bowel and bladder control.
Diagnostic considerations in motor neurone disease
At The Health Lodge, we may be interested in running tests to gather more information to help us manage all aspects of your health.
- Nutritional deficiencies are common in MND, as so we may screen for a number of nutrient deficiencies and work with diet and supplements to correct these
- Checking inflammatory markers is also important as inflammation is thought to play a role in MND
- It may also be beneficial to test for heavy metal toxicities using hair mineral analysis, and blood and urine tests, as heavy metals can affect your mental wellbeing and the health of your neurological system, and are suspected of playing a role in some cases of MND
- If depression or anxiety is a major factor in your health, it may be important to test for zinc deficiency and copper overload, metabolic abnormalities such as raised urinary pyrroles, and genetic factors including MTHFR gene polymorphisms. These factors can all play major roles in your psychological wellbeing.
Treatment options for motor neurone disease
Early education is very important in managing MND. Knowing the progression of the disease allows people to plan ahead and find the care they need in managing current and future symptoms. We believe that a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals is essential in managing all the aspects of motor neurone disease. A coordinated, integrated team approach to your care helps you live better, and may help you to live longer with MND. Health professionals that you may have in you health care team include:
- A GP and/or neurologist for regular check-ups and advice on medications.
- A Psychologist for you emotional and mental wellbeing, as living with a disease can be incredibly emotionally distressing and mentally taxing
- A Naturopath to prevent nutritional deficiencies
- A Respiratory specialist if you experience breathing difficulties
- An Occupational therapist if you require skills and equipment to help you carry out daily living activities
- A Speech pathologist to help with issues of speech, swallowing, and eating
- An Osteopath and/or physiotherapist to help with joint stiffness and structural problems
- Carers to help with daily living needs
This comprehensive and holistic team approach is designed to support all aspects of your health, including your physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing.
For enquiries call The Health Lodge on 02 6685 6445
In the next two blogs we will be discussing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a general term that covers a number of conditions that involve inflammation of the bowel. The two main types of IBD are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In this week’s blog we will discuss Crohn’s disease, and you can find out more about ulcerative colitis in next week’s blog.
What is Crohn’s disease?
Crohn’s disease is a chronic (on going) condition characterised by inflammation of all the layers of the bowel wall. While the most common parts of the digestive tract that are affected are the large intestine (colon) and the last section of small intestine (ileum), Crohn’s disease may affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
Causes of Crohn’s disease
Like many of the conditions we see at The Health Lodge, the cause of Crohn’s disease remains unknown. Crohn’s disease is considered an autoimmune disease, where the body’s immune system attacks its own healthy tissues. However, some researchers suggest it arises from an immune deficiency state, where the immune system is unable to control bacterial growth in the bowel, leading to chronic infection and inflammation.
While the cause of Crohn’s disease remains a contentious issue, researchers do agree that a number of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, infectious agents (bacteria/virus), and immunological factors may all play a role in the development of the disease, and that the interaction of these factors may lead to the development of Crohn’s disease in susceptible individuals.
Symptoms of Crohn’s disease
The main symptoms of Crohn’s disease are abdominal cramps and pain; frequent, watery diarrhoea; and weight loss. Other symptoms include fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite. Some people may also experience symptoms or manifestations outside the digestive tract, including swollen joints, inflamed eyes, skin lumps or rashes, jaundice (yellowing of skin), and osteoporosis.
Symptoms can range from mild to severe depending on the individual, and the disease process often follows a pattern of flare-ups (when the disease is in its active stage and the bowel is inflamed) and remissions (where there is minimal inflammation and mild or no symptoms).
Crohn’s disease treatment
Crohn’s disease can be an incredibly debilitating disease to live with, and can have a high impact on your quality of life. It is essential that you receive adequate care so you can function happily in day-to-day life. Treatment of Crohn’s disease is aimed at controlling symptoms, preventing flare-ups, improving quality of life, and minimising complications. There is a range of treatment options available to you, and we recommend an integrated “team approach” to your health management.
- Medical care: Depending on your symptoms and the severity of condition, your GP may recommend anti-diarrhoeal medications, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medication, or immunosuppressive agents.
- Dietetics: A dietitian may be able to help identify problem foods, and to design a diet tailored to your needs to prevent nutritional deficiencies and weight loss.
- Psychotherapy: Stress may trigger or worsen symptoms. A psychologist may assist you in identifying areas in your life that cause you stress, and help you develop stress management techniques.
- Acupuncture: In a study of 51 patients with Crohn’s disease, acupuncture was found to improve disease activity markers, and to improve general wellbeing.
Naturopathic approach to management of Crohn’s disease
This section will discuss some of the naturopathic considerations in managing Crohn’s disease. We advise you to consult your health carer provider before considering commencing any of these therapies.
There is no single diet for Crohn’s disease. Each individual will react to foods differently, and your diet needs to be tailored to your individual needs. Some dietary changes commonly beneficial to people with Crohn’s disease include:
- Low fibre diet - a low fibre diet may help to ease diarrhoea and reduce abdominal cramping during flare-ups.
- Low fat diet – Many people with Crohn’s disease experience diarrhoea that contains undigested fats. These people may benefit from a low fat diet; however care should be taken to prevent weight loss and nutrient deficiencies.
- Identifying and avoiding problem foods- Certain foods may increase cramping, bloating, and abdominal pain. It is important that you identify any foods that cause such problems and try to avoid them. Common problem foods include fruit and fruit juice, cabbage, beans, broccoli, spicy food, and chocolate.
- Eating small frequent meals- Small meals are easier to digest and so you may feel better eating five or six small meals per day.
- Drinking plenty of water- Try to drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration, especially during times of frequent diarrhoea. Try to avoid alcohol and caffeinated beverages as these stimulate your intestines and can make diarrhea worse. Soft drinks and other carbonated drinks frequently produce gas.
- Avoiding dairy – Some people with Crohn’s disease are lactose intolerant, and avoiding diary products may be helpful in these individuals.
Stress reduction: As we’ve already mentioned, stress can trigger or exacerbate symptoms. Techniques such as exercise, yoga, meditation, and massage may help to reduce stress levels.
A word on smoking: If you have Crohn’s disease, smoking can lead to a worsening of your condition. Smoking increases your likelihood of having flare-ups, needing medication and requiring repeat surgeries. Quitting smoking can improve the health of your digestive tract, as well as your general wellbeing.
Correcting nutritional deficiencies
People suffering from Crohn’s disease are at risk of a number of nutrient deficiencies. If the last part of the small intestine is inflamed, you will have difficulties absorbing B12 from your diet and B12 injections may be needed. If the entire small intestine is inflamed there will be difficulties absorbing all nutrients. Your naturopath, with your other health care providers, will identify those nutrients you may be deficient in, and may adjust your diet or suggest supplements to correct them.
Identifying food allergies
While there is much contention as whether food allergies play a role in Crohn’s disease, some researchers suggest that food allergies may trigger Crohn’s disease and exacerbate symptoms. If food allergies are present, it is important to identify the problem food, remove it from the diet, and adjust the diet to prevent possible nutrient deficiencies caused by elimination of that food.
Your integrative team of health care specialists
We believe that a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals is essential in managing all the aspects of Crohn’s disease. Depending on your needs, your multidisciplinary team may include general practitioners, gastroenterologists, naturopaths, dieticians, osteopaths, massage therapists, acupuncturists, counsellors, and psychologists. This comprehensive and holistic approach is designed to support your physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing.